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Efficiency improvement in machining of complex parts by
optimising the tool system dynamics
Heft Nummer 330
Vorhaben Nr. 331
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In milling operations of complex parts, tool vibrations and instable process conditions occur
due to the typically low dynamic stiffness and damping of the long-cantilevered and slender
tools which are necessary to reach deep holes and cavities without collision. Such tool vibrations
lead to chatter marks or waviness on the workpiece surfaces, increased tool loads and
accelerated tool wear. Progressed tool wear also affects the machined surface and finally tool
breakage can occur, which severely damages the workpieces. Vice versa, the tool wear has a
significant effect on the dynamic behaviour of the engaged milling tools. These effects exemplarily
occur in machining of dies and moulds, energy-turbine components, or rapid-manufactured
parts and prototypes. Surface defects or damages are inacceptable for the functional
behaviour and quality of products in these applications and market sectors. Consequently,
critical tool vibrations have to be avoided by an appropriate tool and process layout or immediately
identified by monitoring systems during the running process to allow an interruption,
tool change or adaptation of process parameters, like spindle speed and feed rate. Thus, sophisticated
process-layout and optimisation methods, adapted tool properties as well as powerful
process monitoring and adaptive control systems constitute essential means for the enhancement
of the machining performance, reliability and efficiency.
The goal of the DynaTool project was to provide innovative solutions in these fields:
- With respect to the machining of free-formed steel and hardened-steel parts, improved tooling technologies regarding arbitrarily arranged cutting edges, adapted macro and micro cutting-edge geometries as well as innovative coatings were investigated.
- New process simulation methods allow an optimised tool and process layout, and, for the first time, enable an exploitation of complex simulation results computed prior to the real process by predictive monitoring and adaptive control strategies.
- Sensor-integrated modular tools, tool holders and clamping devices provide monitoring signals with significantly improved sensitivity with respect to vibrations and tool-wear influences.
The particular approach and methodology of the DynaTool project combines tool and process
technology, simulation methods, latest sensor techniques, as well as sophisticated monitoring
and process-control algorithms. By use of the DynaTool results, higher material removal rates,
longer tool lifetimes, reduced tooling costs, improved surface quality, more reliable processes,
less defective parts, and, thus, a significantly more efficient processing can be achieved. New
products and services can be derived from the pre-competitive prototypic solutions. Especially
SMEs get an insight into modern high-tech methods and components.
The DynaTool project was implemented by five research institutions from Germany, Austria
and Belgium. It was supported by a high number of industrial companies. The coordination of
the project was carried out by the Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V. (FKM). The technical
management was conducted by the Institute of Manufacturing Technology and Quality
Management (IFQ), Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg.