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Licences Analytical Strength Assessment EN
7 th Ed. 2020
232 pages

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made of Steel, Cast Iron and Aluminium Materials
7th, revised Edition 2020

Preface to 7th edition
For engineers concerned with design and calculation in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry, the FKM Guideline for analytical strength assessment has been available since 1994. This guideline was elabo¬rated by the expert group "Strength of Components" with financial support by the Forschungskuratorium Maschi¬nenbau (FKM) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen "Otto von Guericke".
Based on former TGL standards, the former guideline VDI 2226 and further sources, the guideline has been elaborated and further developed to meet the current state of knowledge.
The FKM Guideline
- is applicable to mechanical engineering and related fields of industry,
- allows the analytical strength assessment for rod-shaped, shell-shaped and volume-shaped components, taking all relevant influences into consideration,
- describes the assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength, the latter in the form of an assessment of the fatigue limit, the fatigue strength for finite life or the variable amplitude fatigue strength, depending on the service stress conditions,
- is valid for steel, including stainless steel, at component temperatures from – 40 °C to 500 °C,
- is valid for cast iron materials at component tempe-ratures from – 25 °C to 500 °C,
- is valid for aluminium materials at component tem-peratures from – 25 °C to 200 °C,
- is applicable to components produced with or without machining, or by welding,
- allows an evaluation of nominal stresses as well as of local stresses, determined using the theory of linear elasticity, derived by means of analytical solutions, by finite element or boundary element analyses, or from measurements,
- is not applicable for corrosive environmental media.
A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to all these cases of application. Most of the calculation procedure is predetermined. The user is only required to make a few decisions.
The guideline is a calculation algorithm, consisting of instructions, equations, and tables. Most of the included figures have only an explanatory function. Textual declarations are given where appropriate to ensure reliable application.
The rather comprehensive possibilities of calculation given here comply with the state of knowledge to an extent that may be presented in a guideline. The used symbols are partly adapted to the more recent develop¬ment. The presented calculation procedure is comple¬mented by examples for better comprehensibility.
The preceding six editions of the guideline received a significant amount of interest, showing user need for such an up-to-date design basis for various cases of application. This interest was confirmed by the VDI conferences on "Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic Compo¬nents", that were organized in the context of the guideline in Fulda in 1995, 1998 and 2002, as well by the DVM conference "Neue Entwicklungen für die Bauteilfestig¬keitsnachweise" (New developments in the strength assessment of components) in Darmstadt in 2010 and in Berlin in 2018.
The contents-related changes introduced with the third edition were mainly concerned with the inclusion of stainless steel and of forging steel, with the technological size factor, with the section factor for assessing the static strength, with the fatigue limit of grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron, with additional detail categories and with the specification of an effective damage sum smaller than unity for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength, with the analytical assessment of welded components, with the assessment of multiaxial stresses and with a strength assessment using experimentally determined component strength values.
An essential formal change in the third edition was a new structure, which provided four chapters describing the assessment of the static strength and the assessment of the fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local stresses determined based on the elasticity theory, respec¬tively. For ease of application each of these chapters contains a complete description of the calculation procedure, although this results in repetitions of identical or nearly identical text segments in the corresponding sections.
The major change in the fourth edition of 2002 is the possibility of an analytical strength assessment also for components made of aluminium materials, by applying the same calculation procedure that had, so far, been used for components of steel and cast-iron materials.
The specifications necessary to include aluminium materials were derived from literature evaluations. In doing so, it became evident, however, that some of the relevant factors of influence had not yet been examined with the desirable comprehensiveness or that available results could not be evaluated objectively due to major scatter. In the fourth edition, the specifications were based on a careful consideration of the factual relations in these special cases.
In addition to the correction of any misprints and an improvement of the wording, the fifth edition has also been modified factually where necessary as compared with the fourth. The main modifications are as follows:
- a consistent differentiation between the constant ampli¬tude fatigue limit referred to the first knee point of the SN-curve at ND, on the one hand, and the ultimate fatigue limit associated with N = ∞ for S-N curves of type II, on the other hand,
- the calculation using an equivalent stress amplitude.
The fifth edition of the FKM Guideline has also been published in English with an identical content.
This sixth edition of the FKM Guideline took into consideration more recent research results, particularly those of the projects "Assessment of the static strength" and "Improved calculation concept for FKM Guideline".
- clear allocation between characteristic service stresses and component shape: nominal stresses for rod-shaped components with cross-section related stress types, local stresses for all components based on the stress components,
- new safety level "mean consequences of failure",
- complete revision of the static strength assessment for welded components with separate material tables and taking into consideration of the softening of aluminium in accordance with DIN 4113,
- relating the static component strength to the yield strength and removal of a summarized design factor,
- conversion of the static strength assessment using local stresses to an assessment using equivalent stresses, degree of multiaxiality and re-definition of the critical strain,
- inclusion of the static strength assessment for welded components using the R1 concept, based on the critical strains for structural steels,
- complete revision of the assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components, including an adaptation of FAT classes and safety factors to the current IIW-Recommendations as well as rewording regarding the thickness factor and the estimation of residual stresses,
- integration of a new material-mechanical concept of Kt/Kf-ratio,
- clear wording in the Haigh diagram for shear stresses,
- improved method of the consistent version of Miner’s rule for S-N curves of type II,
- new equation for the effective damage sum,
- new multiaxiality hypothesis for non-proportional stresses acting on rod-shaped components,
- new Chapter on the estimation of the fatigue limit of surface treated components,
- new Chapter giving advice on design loads.
The chapters on standard spectra, on loading classes as well as on an improved method for computing the com¬ponent fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses have been deleted to make the FKM Guideline clearer. Using these methods in accordance with the fifth edition of the FKM Guideline is still permissible.
The actual seventh, revised edition of FKM-Guideline now contains as main news
- ductility now clearly referred to elongation at rupture,
- new parameters for long-term temperature factors,
- addition of elastic strain to the total critical strain for calculation of section factor,
- introduction of the hardening factor,
- static strength values of welded components with reference to Eurocode 9,
- enhanced stress definition for general possibility for application of critical plane approach in fatigue,
- parallel description of fatigue strength assessment via maximal stress amplitude and via equivalent stress amplitude,
- adjusted parameters for the Kt/Kf-ratio according to Siebel & Stieler for aluminium castings
- extended the applicability of the coating factor to zinc-plated steel
- limitation of the maximum amplitude formulated with considering mean stress and mean stress sensitivity,
- slight modifications in S-N curve system,
- new formulated sign rule for combined utilisation,
- clarification of decisive result of assessment (single utilisations vs. combined utilisation),
- complete revision of material tables,
- new material group "Ausferritic cast iron with nodular graphite" (ADI),
- new table of fatigue notch factors for press-fitted shafts according to DIN 743,
- new formulation of fatigue strength assessment of welded components on base of notch stresses or effective stresses,
- introduction of specific surface treatment factors for weld post-treatment according to IIW.
The description for overload cases F3 and F4 has been removed because of their rather rare practical application. Their use in accordance with the sixth edition of the FKM Guideline is still permissible.
Ongoing as well as future research projects will contribute to the further improvement of the guideline. The involved research institutes and the Forschungskuratorium Maschi¬nenbau e. V. (FKM) appreciate any reports on practical experience as well as any proposals for improvement resulting from the practical application of the guideline.
The FKM-Guideline Analytical strength assessment and the FKM-Guideline Non-linear are complementary in this way, that for both Guidelines the fatigue strength assess¬ment is permissible, if the static strength assessment was carried out successfully according to the other guideline.


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Analytical Strength Assessment 7th Ed. ENGLISH (Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis EN) - IP Range Licence

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