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First Edition - May 2020
EHEDG 2020
Seiten /pages: 84


This guideline describes requirements for the hygienic design of equipment and production lines used in the bakery industry. It stresses the current best practices in the design of machinery and highlights typical hazards and challenges. It also assigns the dry or wet cleaning procedures to the different types of equipment.
The general part contains information on special characteristics of the production chain and of products, appropriate cleaning procedures, applicable materials and recommendations on the design of equipment in general. In tabular chapter 10, the individual process areas and related equipment of the baking process following unit operations are described. This part gives a résumé of poorly designed areas in contrast to recommendations on hygienic improvements. The tables listed in this chapter 10 comprise hygienic weak points in the bakery production equipment and provide approaches for their reduction and improvement. Rec-ommended cleaning procedures are given for the individual components. The tables are ordered according to the bakery production process. For greater clarity purposes, the tables are classified by the three main pro-cess areas:

  • Raw material handling and raw material refining,
  • Dough preparation and dough manufacturing,
  • Oven and cooling.
These process areas are subdivided into unit operations and their components and machines, respectively.


1 Objectives and scope
2 Normative References
3 Definitions and Terms
4 General Considerations  
5 Special Considerations
6 General information about Bakery Equipment and Processes
6.1 Special characteristics of the production chain  
6.2 Characteristics of products  
6.3 Equipment
6.4 Process-related flora of microorganisms
6.5 Hazards
6.5.1 Microbiological and biological hazards
6.5.2 Allergens  
6.5.3 Chemical and physical hazards
6.6 Cleaning
6.6.1 Procedures
6.6.2 Application
6.6.3 Performance
6.7 Basic requirements of Hygienic Design
6.8 Compressed air
7 Product contact materials and surfaces
7.1 General requirements
7.2 Preferable materials
7.2.1 General aspects
7.2.2 Stainless steel
7.2.3 Plastics
7.2.4 Elastomers
7.3 Materials for special applications  
7.3.1 Aluminium and aluminium alloys  
7.3.2 Carbon steel, grey cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron  
7.3.3 Copper / copper alloys  
7.3.4 Coatings
7.3.5 Textile and synthetic fabric  
7.3.7 Wood .
7.3.8 Glass, ceramics, stoneware, and fireclay
7.3.9 Silicones
8 Non-product contact materials and their surfaces  
8.1 General aspects
8.2 Materials
8.2.1 Stainless steel  
8.2.2 Aluminium alloys and aluminium alloys
8.2.3 Carbon steel, grey cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron
8.3 Coatings
8.4 Plastics and elastomers
9 Product contact equipment and components
9.1 Dismountable joints  
9.1.1 General aspects
9.1.2 Screws, bolts and nuts
9.1.3 Bayonet coupling  
9.1.4 Splints and pins
9.2 Permanent joints
9.2.1 General aspects
9.2.2 Welding
9.2.3 Adhesive bonding
9.2.4 Crimp connections
9.2.5 Rivets
9.3 Hinges  
9.4 Tanks  
9.4.1 General aspects
9.4.2 Closed tanks
9.4.3 Open tanks
9.5 Pipelines
9.6 Pipe couplings
9.7 Valves
9.7.1 General aspects  
9.7.2 Valves for liquids
9.7.2 Valves for low moisture food
9.8 Belt Conveyor
9.9 Frames, feet, and castors
9.9.1 Framework
9.9.2 Feet and castors
9.10 Claddings and covers  
9.12 Control cabinets and control boxes
9.13 Bearings
9.14 Drives
9.15 Cable Routing
9.16 Work platforms, gangway, stairs and railings
10 Hygiene Risks at the Bakery Production Equipment  
10.1 Raw material handling and raw material refining  
10.2 Dough preparation and dough manufacturing
10.3 Oven and cooling  
11 Literature
12 Appendix 1: Key Learning Points
13 Appendix 2: Certification Requirements
14 Appendix 3: Recommended Purchase Requirements